Tuesday, 7 February 2012

District Sukkur

Sukkur
Profile

Sukkur is the central city of Sindh province, It is located on the west bank of the river Indus. The city is the starting point for all the archeological sites in Sindh. There is also a very busy central Bazaar in the city which attracts people from all over the Sindh province. Sukkur is also the home for Masoom Shah Jo Munaro (Minaret of Masoom Shah) a leaning tower constructed in 18th century by historian Masoom Shah Bakhri who also ruled the city for a short period. There are some of the most respected relics of hidus in the city which include the Asthan of Kalka Devi and the Sadh Belo the asthan of Baba Bankhandi located on Sadh Belo Island in the river Indus.
Sukkur is also home of the rare dolphin specie the Indus Dolphin which lives in the silty water of the Indus and found most at Sukkur. The best thing to buy is Dates which are really a good gift from here. One can also hunt for colorful handicrafts and ajraks here.
Sukkur is also the narrowest point of the lower Indus. Hence it was here English made first barrage on the Indus in 1932. (Lloyd Barrage) 7 Canals were dig to distribute water in all parts of the province which eventually made Pakistan to have the longest irrigation system of the world. With 38000 miles of irrigation canals known as Indus Food System.

Sakhar, or Sukkur as commonly written but pronounced as the former had been a town situated on the right bank of the Indus, and part of Sind province even before the British India. It commanded the trade of Sind, and the river was once crossed by a cantilever bridge carrying the North-Western railway to Kotri in the early 20th century. In 1842 it came under British rule. The District Of Sukkur was created in 1901 out of part of Shikarpur district, the remainder of which was formed into the district of Larkana. It is chiefly alluvial plain, but there are slight hills at Sukkur and Rohri. In the higher-lying parts are salt lands, or even desert in the area known as the Rajistan. The climate is hot, dry and enervating. The population in 1901 was 523,345, showing an increase of 10% in the decade. A considerable part of the district is irrigated, the principal crops being wheat, millets, rice, pulses and oil seeds. Earthen, leathern and metal ware, cotton cloth and tussore silk are manufactured, also pipe-bowls, snuff-boxes and scissors. Lines of the North-Western railway serve the district, and there is a branch from Sukkur towards Quetta. Sukkur was and still continues to be a junction point for railway system for Quetta via Sibi and Jacobabad, while another highway and railway line go via Rahimyar Khan and Sadiqabad straight to Multan. Sukkur is a sprawling town, with beautiful mosques, gardens, shrines and madrazhis (Muslim religious schools). A desert oasis town, similar to Jaisalmer in Rajasthan, it also boasts many havelis, however, unlike those of Jaisalmer, the Sukkur variety are decorated with geometric, floral designs and painted in a variety of bright, contrasting colors. Just across the Indus is Rohri, also fairly prosperous and an important rail and road junction. The two towns, 5 km apart and 544 km north of Karachi are linked by the Landsdowne and Ayub bridges, which are extremely beautiful. There is a medieval mosque with porcelain-tiled walls, and eight km away are remains of the ancient city of Aror where Alexander the Great is said to have camped.
Clock Tower Sukkur
Sukkur has been an important strategic centre and trading route from time immemorial. Alor (present Aror, Sukkur) held the status of capital under the reign of Musikanos, when Alexander invaded India in 326 BCE. The ruins of this ancient town still exist, 8 km east of Rohri, in Sukkur district. In 711 AD, Muhammad Bin Qasim led a Muslim army and invaded Sindh, whole os Sindh (including Sukkur) and lower Punjab became part of Umayyad Caliphate. Later Mughals and many semi-autonomous tribes ruled over Sukkur. The city was ceded to Mirs of Khairpur between 1809 and 1824. In 1833, Shah Shuja (a warlord of Kandahar, Afghanistan) defeated the Talpurs near Sukkur and later made a solemn treaty with the Talpur ruler, by which he relinquished all claims on Sindh. In 1843, the British general, Charles James Napier, defeated the Talpurs at the battle of Miani and Dubbo near Hyderabad and ruled Sind, including Sukkur until independence of Pakistan.

In 1923, world's biggest irrigation of that times was laid by the British with the construction of the famous Sukkur barrage (formally called Lloyd Bridge), on the Indus river. The work for the bridge was started in 1923 and completed in January 1932. The 5,000 feet long barrage is made of yellow stone and steel and can water nearly 10 million acres (40,000 km²) of farmland through its large seven canals. Some of the canals are larger than the Suez Canal.
B.I.S.E Building Sukkur
Sukkur as it is now is the third largest city of Sindh. The name read as Suk-khar is a local variant of Arabic word "Saqar" which means intense. In the 10th century AD when Arabs invaded Sukkur), they found extreme (hot and cold) climate, and called it "Saqar". Sukkur is also known as "Darya Dino" in local Sindhi language, meaning the  the gift of river, as without the Indus this would be like Egypt deprived of Nile. Sukkur district shares northern border with Shikarpur and (recently constituted) Kashmore districts. Ghokti is located on the north-eastern side while Khairpur on the south. Sukkur also shares its border with India (Jaisalmir, Rajasthan). Sukkur is also connected by road air with all major cities of Pakistan. At the time of Pakistan's independence (1947), Sukkur district was comprised approximately 200,000 habitants, mostly engaged in agricultural pursuits and fishing industry. Over time, Sukkur has seen a moderate rise in population (2 to 2.5% per annum) as compare to Pakistan's, except in late 60s and early 70s when population growth rate reached 4.43% (1972 census) due to internal migration and establishment of some large bridges on river Indus. According to official census of 1998, Sukkur has a population of 908,370. Besides 96% Muslims, Sukkur also has relatively greater proportion of Hindus, mostly settled in urban areas and engaged in trade and services sector. Ethnically Sindhis share the biggest segment of population (74%), followed by Muhajirs - refugees from India upon partition of British India (14%). Sukkur is also domicile of many Baloch tribes, including, Rindh, Chandio, Khoso and Laghari. Amongst others, there are Memon, Punjabi and Siraiki sections. Traditionally Memons were associated with trade and retail business but during last two decades they have ascended as an active social and economic front.

Church
Sukkur is a hub of many small and large scale industries. Among important industries are cotton textiles, cement, leather, tobacco, paint and varnish, pharmaceuticals, agriculture implements, hand pumps, lock making, rice-husking, and sugar. Small-scale cottage industries comprise hosiery, boat making, fishing accessories, thread ball spooling, trunk making brass-wares, cutlery and ceramics. Being an agricultural city, crops like rice, maize, cotton, tomatoes, peas wheat, barley, gram and melons are sown here. Sukkur is famous world over, for its delicious dates. Sukkur also holds a large number of riverine forest on the course of Indus. These tropical forests are found within the protective embankments on either side of Indus. During 1997-98 the total area under forests was 510 km² which yielded 55,000 cubic feet (1600 m³) of timber and 27000 cubic feet (760 m³) of firewood besides other miner products.

OLD SUKKUR IN SINDH
Choohar Das Garden Old Sukkur
Originally Sukkur, Rohri and Bukher were all connected by land. A great earthquake during the 11th century changed the course of the river Indus from Arror to a different side of Rohri, with the result that the land, which connected Sukkur, Rohri and Bukher, was divided into three parts and the river flowed in between. Sukkur was on one side, Rohri on the other and Bukher was in between.
There are various versions as to how Sukkur was given its name. The popular version is that there were fields of Sugarcane and Sugar factories in the vicinity of Sukkur. So Sukkur seems to be the distorted version of the word ‘Shaker’ which means ‘Sugar’. There is another version, which seems to be more authentic and convincing, thats because there was plenty to eat and plenty to enjoy, things were inexpensive and people at large were comfortable and happy. The word Sukkur seems to have been derived from the word ‘Sukh’ which means Comfort.
Gin House Old Sukkur
Sukkur was the third most important town of SINDH . It was an important commercial and industrial centre of upper Sindh.  It is said that Sukkur became a very important Ship building port and two ships were built one in the year 1835 named  Indus and the other in the year 1843 named Satellite.  Sukkur assumed great importance in business, trade and other activities especially after the conquest of Sindh by the British in 1848.
Sukkur gained further importance after the construction of the famous Sukkur Barrage (Dam) on the river Indus making Sindh the granary of India.
Important Places of Sukkur.
A) Bunder Road
Among the important places of Sukkur was the Bunder Road which was beside the river Indus. It was somewhat similar to Marine Drive at Bombay
Sadh Bela
B) Sadhubela
The other important place of attraction was the temple known as Sadhubela which was on an island in the middle of the river Indus. It was built artistically of marble and was surrounded by a garden of great beauty which had varieties of birds including the peacock freely living in full protection. The head of the Sadhubela Ashram before Partition was a Saint known as  Swami Harinamdasji, who besides being a religious scholar, was also a man of the people. He helped solve many disputes between the residents of Sukkur and prevented unnecessary litigation and expenditure . He was highly respected and admired by one and all.
Bathing Ghat
C) Ghats
On the bank of the Indus river were beautiful ghats where people took bath and prayed on holy days like ChetiChand.
Old & New Sukkur
Sukkur was divided into Old and New Sukkkur only by a railway line and the distance between them was only half a mile. The population at the time of Partition of New Sukkur was about 80,000 and that of Old Sukkur was about 10,000.
Old Sukkur was connected to an important town, Rohri, by a Pillarless bridge known as the Landsdowne Bridge which was one of the few bridges of this type in those days. The people of Old Sukkur had very close social and cultural relations with the people of Rohri. Although the population of Old Sukkur was much less than that of New Sukkur, the residents of Old Sukkur were very well off and had their own businesses.
Sukkur on Right Bank of Indus River


Most residents had Shops, Factories and other business concerns located in New Sukkur. While the people of New Sukkur had emigrated to New Sukkur from the surrounding villages and rural areas and did not have close relationships with each other, the residents of Old Sukkur had very close ties with each other and were like one big family.


Dev Samaj School
Many  residents of Old Sukkur were related to each other either by ties of Blood or Marriage. In Old Sukkur, there was a hospital, Girls school, Narishala, a Bhavan and a Public Library apart from a large number of parks and gymnasiums. There was no political or religious rivalry among the people. Muslims and Hindus lived in Old Sukkur with perfect understanding and amity and participated in each others' festivals without reservations.
Municipal Vernacular School / Mules English School
Municipal Vernacular School was established in the year 1884 with four primary standards. 


Entry of Mules School
Subsequently two more standards called as Pahiryon and Biyon Angrezi were added.  However, later on adjacent to this School another school with six English standards called Angrezi or Mules School was established in the year 1903 thereby the two additional standards were wounded up from Municipal School .  Thus there were two schools, one Municipal  Vernacular school called Primary  School with four Sindhi standards and another Mules or Angrezi School with six English standards.  Thereby making in all 10 standards for qualifying for Matriculation examination of Bombay University. 
Both these school were established with untiring efforts of Master Khanchand Balani.
Lansdowne Bridge
Although during Meers` rule there was no arrangement for children`s education from Government`s side, but later during the British rule Sindhi was taught in School in Guband , that was also called as Qube varo school, that was opp. Sukkur Jail.  That Guband with 40` ht. has eight sides, that is why it was called Athan Passan Vro Guband.  In 1984 when Municipal Vernacular school was established, the school at Guband was wound up.  But soon at the          Qube vari place, Mian Abdulah Peerzada starded K.G.school for children, where besides Kinder Garden education, children were taught games, music and dance, children used to attend the K.G. school with great interest.


Lloyd Barrage or Sukkur Barrage
Sukkur Barrage 
The Sukkur Barrage has 66 Gates. The Sukkur barrage (formally called Lloyd Barrage), built under the British Raj on the Indus river, controls one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. It was designed by Sir Arnold Musto KCIE, and constructed under the overall direction of Sir Charlton Harrison, KCIE, as Chief Engineer. Construction of the barrage was started in 1923 and completed in January 1932. The 5,001 feet (1,524 m) long barrage is made of yellow stone and steel and can water nearly 10 million acres (40,000 km2) of farmland through its seven large canals. Some of the canals are larger than the Suez Canal.

Lansdowne Bridge

In November 2004, the government of Pakistan initiated a rehabilitation project to revitalize its water storage capacity and distribution efficiency. The project was completed in July 2005, (with less than the allocated amount of Rs. 887 million). Experts believe that the rehabilitation of the barrage has enhanced its efficiency for another 60 to 70 years.

Rohri
Imam Bargah Rohri

Rohri or Lohri, 27° 41’ North Latitude, 68° 56’ East Longitude, headquarter of the taluka (tehsile) of that name, is a Municipal Town.


The town is situated on the left bank of the river Indus (Sanskrit, Sindhu; Greek, Sinthes; Latin Sindus [from Bukkur in Sukkur to the sea the river is known familiarly among the people of the province as the Darya]), on a rocky eminence of limestone interspersed with flints, which is terminated abruptly on the western side of a precipice 12 meters high rising from the bank of the river, which during the inundation attains a height of about 05 meters above its lowest level. 

On the southern side the aspect of the whole place has been changed by the operations of the Railway Company, which has cleared a wide space fir its yards by blasting the hills and filling up the hallows obtaining at the same time immense quantities of good stone.

The interest of town lies mainly in its history which begins from the stone age, for it is evident, from the quantity of flint cores and flakes found in the river bed at Rohri and on the surrounding hills (proceeding of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 1975, page 134) by Lieutenant Twemlow, R.E., and afterwards by Mr. John Tate, that Neolithic man has, at one time, a flourishing settlement at this place. Dr. Blanford pronounced these cores to be more carefully formed than any previously found in India and so far superior to all ordinary forms of the same other places. There is a wide gap between Neolithic man and the Arab invasion of Sindh, at the time of which there was almost certainly no town on the present site which was not then on the course and made a passage for itself through the hills between the present Rohri and Sukkur, the two towns probably grew simultaneously on its left and right banks respectively under the protection of the fortress which soon occupied Bukkur. From a very early period Rohri acquired a sacred character, which was enhanced when the Saiyids who has settled in Bukkur were removed by Shahbeg Arghun and compensated with land and privilege at Rohri. Its history as a scared place can be gathered from a description of the principle shrines and relics.

There are three prominent hills (nummulitic limestone, low range on the northern extremity, run southwards from that point to Khairpur District boundary), namely “Kalka” hill at Arore, “Laheri” hill at Rohri and “Shadi Shaheed” hill at Kandhra.

In 1975-6, the Cambridge Archaeological Expedition made a preliminary survey of the Paleolithic sites in the Rohri Hills. According to their findings, the Rohri Hills were a source of chart for the manufacture of the parallel-sided blades used by the Harappan culture of 2300-1750 BC. The most clearly differentiated Paleolithic site in the Rohri Hills was at their southern end, near the village of Chancha Baloch and only four kilometers from the pre-Harappan settlement of Kot Diji. Spread over an area of about 5,000 square meters, on a largely sand- free area between the dunes, are found Middle and Upper Paleolithic artifacts and factory debris . An extensive series of working floors were also found close to a hamlet known as Nawab Punjabi. The discovery of factory sites representing all phases of the Stone Age in the lower Indus Valley has added more depth to our understanding of civilization in prehistoric Sindh. Rohri was one of the place most affected by the departure of the caste Hindu in 1947.

Satyun jo Aastan
Satyun jo Aastan

Satyun Jo Aastan (the place for virgins sisters) on one of the little hills that rise out of the river bank on the south there is a level platform on which are many carved gravestones like those on the Makli Hills at Thatta, which chain ornament and panels of Arabic quotations from the Holy Quran. The whole space between the graves is paved and a flight of step leads up to the platform from the South-side. Enameled tiled work is freely used on these tombs, most of which are dated 1018 to 1301 AH., that is between 1609 and 1883 AD. The principal grave is that of Mir Kasim one of the Sabzwari Shahids dated 1018 AD. This was probably the grave that sanctified the place, and a lamp post and lamp are placed in front of it still, and it gives the name of Than Kasim Shah to the hill. But the name of which it is more generally known is the hill of the seven virgins from the building on the southern side called Satbhain, which consist of a row of shallow rooms connected externally with colored tiles. 


These cells are said to have been occupied by seven virgins, who had taken a vow never to look upon the face of man. Sir Richard Burton, however, maintains that this derivation is wrong, ignorant people having perverted Sati-na-jo-Than or seat of the Satis (i.e. celibate women) in to something which means seven.

Pano Aqil

Pano Aqil is a taluka of Sukkur District in the Sindh province of Pakistan. It is located approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of the capital Sukkur. Pano Akil Cantonment, Pakistan's largest cantonment, is located here. 

Kot Bula

The Mohallas in this city include Fouji Mohalla, Abbasi Mohalla, Sofi Mohalla, Mehran Colony, Indher Colony, Basheerabad, Shaikh Muhalla, Mandar Gali, Masan Muhalla, Gharibabad, Bashirabad and Irrigation Colony. It consists of 12 union councils and 516 villages.

 Pano Akil is a railway station on Rohri-Lahore main railway 24 miles from Rohri. The town was founded in the 18th century by Akil Khan. In 1904, the mahal of Pano Akil was converted into a taluka. The new District was divided into three subdivisions. Ghotki Taluka of Sukkur District, Sind, Bombay, lying between 27 40' and 28 11' N. and 69 4' and 69 35' E., with an area of 518 square miles, including the Pano Akil wa^a/(168 square miles). The population rose from 67,743 in 1891 to 72,019 in 1901. The tdluka contains one town, Ghotki (population, 3,821), the headquarters; and 129 villages. The density, 139 persons per square mile, is much above the District average. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 2-2 lakhs. The taluka is liable to floods, and depends for the irrigation of its jowar and wheat upon small canals leading direct from the Indus. The zamindars were mostly small holders and impoverished. Much forest land fringes the banks of the river.

Accessibility

The city can be accessed by rail as it is located on the main railway line of Pakistan. The national highway also passes by the west of the city, providing easy access by Road. Similarly, public transport is easily available for various cities including KarachiIslamabadLahore and Sukkur. Sukkur Airport is about at an one and half hour driving distance from the city. The city is connected via a grid of roads and streets, most accessible by car.

Noor Mosque

Economy

Pano Aqil is basically an agricultural area, as its land is fertile while water is available in appropriate quantity. Some agricultural industries include Mahar Cotton Factory, Habib cotton (Indher Colony), Mahar Floor Mill, Najeeb Boon Mills, Bhutto Fruit Farm, Wood Factories and Fruit Farm. It supplies major amounts of vegetables, fruits and cotton crops to the other parts of country, oil of pano akil is so famous also. Pano Aqil is the largest supplier of Lady finger of Pakistan.

Mehran Model School

Education

The educational facilities at Pano Aqil are basic. The Garrison School and College provide the main education in the city. Mehran Model School & Sec: College, Al-Shahabaz School, Roshan Tara School, Govt Boys Higher Secondary Schools, Degree College Pano Aqil, Govt Girls College and Govt High school, Nobel Model School, City School, Govt. Higher Secondary school sultanpur so many other colleges and schools are there in Pano Akil City.

There are Also Educational Academies for IX, X, XI, XII and Specially for Pre Entry Test Preparation. 1. Ideal educational academy 2.Pano Aqil Educational academy 3.Iqra Educational Academy & many others....

Mehran Model School Park

The Large Islamic Educational Institutes at Pano Akil. Jamia Madinat ul uloom,Jamia Taalim ul Islam (Bannaat) Indher colony,Jamia Tahfeezul Quraan Indher colony,Dar ul Uloom ul Islamia Indher colony,Jamia Hamadiya salahi chacher,Jamia Anwar ul Quraan , Jamia Haleji shareef,Jamia Gol Makki Masjid,madarsa noor-e-mustafa tahiria naqshbandiya village sorho tulka (PNL) etc.... by notables of pano akil.

Demographics

Pano Aqil's estimated population is 245,187 in an area of 3,193 square kilometres (1,233 sq mi)Mahar,Kalwar,[^Bullo^],Chachar, {Pitafi } Mughal, Malik, Kalhoro, Jiskani Sayed, Indhar,thaheem, wagho AbbasiJatoi, Qazi, Bhayaa, Samejo, Indher, Shaikh, KalhoraBhutto, Mahar, ChannaArain, Simair, Sahita, Soomra, Mahesar, KoraiMirani, Maka, Mangi, Almani, Jhullan, Bhellar, Mari, Jarwar, Muhammadi, Lanjar, LashariKhaldi,and Umrani tribes live in the taluqa. There is a large Hindu community. Some Christian families also live and work in the city.

Syed are also living in Pano Akil.

Pano Aqil Cantonment
Cantonment
Pano Akil Cantonment is located 40km away from Sukkur, in Sindh, Pakistan. The first cantonment was established in interior Sindh at Pano Aqil [Pano Akil] Jacobabad district in 1988. Pano Aqil is an excellent example of how the establishment of military cantonments could assist in uplift of the area and improvement. The establishment of army cantonments in Badin, Pano Aqil, Dadu, and Moenjodaro aroused indignation among the Sind nationalists. The people of Sindh raised voice against the establishment of the Pano Aqil Cantonment, since at that time there were already eleven Cantonments in Sindh.
Qadir Bux jo Qubo
Cadet College Pano Aqil cost Rs 160 billion. He said this project was started by Sindh government in 1991. However, a great injustice was done to the people of this area by abandoning this project after dismissal of PPP government in 1996. The establishment of a cadet college in Pano Aqil which already had a cantonment is a big achievement of the new PPP government. The Prime Minister Syed Yousuf Raza Gilani announced 11 January 2009 that the Federal Government will provide upto Rs 40 crore for the development of Cadet College, Pano Aqil. He also announced an amount of Rs 40 crore for proposed Cadet College, Ghotki.
Photo Gallery
Ayoob Gate
Ariel View of Lansdowne Bridge
Abdullah High School
Barrage Bridge
Chhota Tikana Old Sukkur
Barrage View
IBA Center Sukkur
High Court Sukkur
Govt. High School Sukkur
Masoom Shah jo Manaro
Mosque made by Mohammad in Qasim
Mohammad Bin Qasim Park
Telenor Globe Sukkur
Tomb of Khuwaja Khizr (Zahir Pir)
Mahadev Temple
Street of Old Sukkur
Sadaruddin Shah
Satyun jo Aastan
Satyun jo Aastan
Public School Sukkur
Taluka Munciple Sukkur
Old Sukkur Jail
Kalka Devi Aroorr
Masoom Shah Bakhri
Mohammad Bin Qasim Mosque
Rohri
Zazree Mubarak Rohri
Karbala Moalla
Jamay Masjid (Waar Mubarak)
Satyun jo Aastan
Rohri Railway Station

3 comments:

  1. this is a ggod diary of disrict ghotiky and also good writer of the diary

    ReplyDelete
  2. Weldone Kavi, Its a great job you have done. now we can found information about all districts of Sindh at one place and in a new form.

    ReplyDelete
  3. last snap is not Rohri Railway Station but it is Sukkur Railway Station. Please correct.
    Engr. Waseem from Railway Sukkur.

    ReplyDelete